Combination of Upflow Aeration and Filtration for Reducing Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) Levels in Shallow Groundwater

  • Fara Chitra Fara Poltekkes Kemenkes Pontianak
  • Prayudi Prayudi Poltekkes Kemenkes Pontianak
  • Zainal Akhmadi Poltekkes Kemenkes Pontianak


Water quality is essential for human health and ecosystem sustainability. Groundwater often contains elevated levels of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), leading to aesthetic and health concerns. This study investigates the efficacy of combining upflow aeration and filtration techniques to mitigate Fe and Mn concentrations in shallow groundwater. Conducted as a quasi-experimental Time Series Design, the research focused on shallow groundwater in Kantor Village, Delta Pawan District, Ketapang Regency. The treatment involves a combination of aeration and filtration using shell sand, zeolite, activated carbon, and various filtration media. The results showed a substantial reduction in Fe and Mn levels in across all treatments, particularly notable with the aeration and multi-media filtration combination (shell sand, zeolite, and activated carbon). The average reduction in Fe levels was 90.11%, and for Mn, it was 83.17%. These findings highlight the potential of this approach in enhancing water quality for human consumption and environmental sustainability.